Iran tells, that it is ready to join to oil production levels freezing agreement, because country reached its pre-sanctions production and export levels. So, now there are no big controversies for this agreement signing and, probably, in close months it’ll be accepted. Ministry of Economical Development of Russia forecasts light industry growth in country on 4 % per year level in 2017 – 2019 years; also it reports, that ruble exchange rate influence on inflation ( 6.5% ) equals to 1.3 – 1.5 %, next year it will be negative and ‘ll be equal to -0.1 – -0.2 %. Foreign investors start to invest money again in Russian economy, because now there are the most favorable conditions for this : economics passed crisis downturn minimum and starts to grow, world economy in perspective promises to be stable and will slowly grow and cheap ruble lowers rent and salary payments. This is profitable to both investors and Russians.
In USA amount of oil and gas derricks lowered to minimum : 415, while 1 year ago there were 894 of them – this way low oil prices and no need of further deposits exploration, because there are enough known deposits for medium term perspective, affect this. Partly because of this oil prices strengthen, which leads to ruble strengthening, in its turn. USD becomes cheaper in comparison to Euro on the background of published labor market statistics in USA. IMF informs, that China now should tighten its monetary politics, instead of softening it, because corporate debt of country equals to 160 % of GDP and further key percent rate lowering with other monetary politics softening measures can aggravate this situation. However China’s economics growth rate lowering is not foreseeable at this time. This is all for today in economical and connected political and society events of this week, follow the releases.
Russia and Zimbabwe develop relations and joint projects, so Russian companies will strengthen their positions in gold, diamonds and platinum mining in Zimbabwe, as well as Russian side will supply newest technologies in their mining. Additionally Russia considers ability to supply flour, drought resistant crops species and pesticides; also countries intend to grow together sugarcane and to develop vaccines for farm animals. Oil prices continue to grow, partly this is connected to anticipation of reduction of its production by countries-non members of OPEC, partly with removing from markets of cheap oil from territories, which previously were controlled by ISIS in Syria, and partly with anticipation of increase of demand in it by the end of this year – beginning of next. However, analysts do not have common opinion on how long this grow will go on, there is ability, that after some time this growth will be changed with new lowering.
Russia and Saudi Arabia compete for oil markets of private refineries in China, both countries offer large discounts to foothold on markets; it is also worth the effort to look on Indian market, until Iran did not filled it with its oil and plans to restore production to pre-sanctions levels. European Central Bank started to unofficially remove 500 Euro banknotes from markets, it is told that main reason of this is the fact, that such banknotes are widely used by criminals and banknotes with smaller nominal will make criminal operations much harder. But, probably, this is just one of the reasons, maybe USA push on Europe and try to remove large amount of money in Euro from markets and substitute their dollar in its place. Financial group VTB can receive operation on Sochi Autodrome, which holds Russian stage of Formula 1 race competitions, because Bank of Moscow, which was creditor of object construction, now is the part of VTB group. This is all for today in economical and related political and society events for this week, stay tuned for the releases.
Russia anticipates to receive this year resolution from China to supply additional kinds of crops and their processing products, this will contribute into agriculture development in Russia and will strengthen trade between two countries. Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Oman ratified agreement about “Central Asia – Persian Gulf” transport corridor, which will make it easier and faster to transport goods and resources from Central Asia to Persian Gulf, which will help to develop economically these regions. In the world crisis of steel overproduction continues to go on : China produces it in very big amounts and this leads to price lowering; it is now on such levels, that many European plants are unremunerative and companies have to close them. So, European Union introduces new dues on its import from China; China promises to think about lowerings its production, but now does not intend to increase steel making lowering rates for the sake of European manufacturers.
Meeting in Doha on oil did not lead to agreement about its production freezing, but this rendered only psychological influence on its price and it continues to be formed by physical market factors. USD to currencies of six biggest trade partners of USA continues to lower, which lead to according changes of resources’ prices. This is all for today from world economical events during week.
Lets begin small descriptions of ships of different types for interest, development in this area and adventures and voyages spirit. First we will talk about clipper ship Mimosa, which in the middle on 19th century carried Welsh emigrants to South America. Clippers is a class of fast sailing ships, which more glide through the water, than furrow it; have 3 masts and large sails equipment; name of type comes from English word clip, which in 19th century also had meaning “sail with high speed“, “cut through the water” and “cut through the air“. Their blossoming was at the beginning – middle of 19th century, when they carried small amount of cargo on large distances with high speed; their appearance mainly connected to need for quick delivery of tea from China and South Asia to Europe and USA. With appearance of a first steamships they started to push out all sailing ships form cargo carrying, because they are able to move without wind; however clippers continued to be used for long-distance transportations, on which copper cost exceeded revenue from goods selling.
Century of the clippers ended in 1869 year, when Suez Channel were opened, which greatly reduced path from Asia to Europe and which is easily passable by steamships and is hardly passable by sailing ships. Mimosa was built in 1853 year in AberdeenScotland, initially it was not designed for passengers transportation, but later were reequipped for this purpose. Max water draught of the ship is 540 tons, sizes are 42.6 ( length ) x 7.8 ( width ) x 4.8 ( height ) m. Before sailing emigrants gathered in different cities of England, from which Mimosa took them and carried to South America. In the end of its life span, when ship started to became obsolete and to wear out, it was hulked and lost after that. But some of the clippers survived till present days, thank you to protection measures, and are still in the ranks and glide through the water masses, as they did 150 years ago.
On this week Egypt и Saudi Arabia signed agreement about creation of investments fond with 16 billions of USD capital; this should contribute to economical development of the region and implementation of large industrial projects, which will lead to increase of income of citizens and work places amount. Central Bank of Russia told, that it will decrease key rate for increasing of credits availability for companies, but with taking into account keeping inflation in acceptable range and decreasing it to 4% in 2017 year; it will not force restrictions on currencies trading and will not try to fix ruble course, to not cause disbalance in economics. Oil prices are slightly increased after publication of information about decrease of its reserves in USA, which caused small growth of key stock indices of country, there is ability to anticipate similar movements of indices of other countries too. Britain Ministry of Foreign Affairs called China to decrease steel production level to increase its prices and make plants profitable; situation is similar to oil in some respect. India is ready to invest 20 billions of USD in development of Iran port Chabahar to increase oil and gas trading amounts of two countries; by this India will also pay part of debt to Iran for supplied oil. And to conclude today, not exactly economics, but interesting anyway : astronomers told about possible discovery of new planet in Solar System, which, presumably, causes anomal movements of other bodies in this space area. It can cause deviations of comets and asteroids movements and send them into inner areas of Solar System, to Earth inclusively, hitting of which of our planet caused mass extinctions of live organisms on Earth in ancient times; but rumors, appeared in some mass media, about “Close Judgment Day” and “No later, than before the end of April” are too exaggerated : in near time ( some millions of years ) no things of such scale are foreseeable from astronomical point of view.
Lets start to make small reviews of world economical events to develop in this area and to be in course of things, that happen in it. On this week Ruble continues strengthening relative to USD, Yuan does the same on the funds of Central Bank of China, which invested in economics of country around 22 billions of USD. Due to cheap oil and small revenue from its selling Russia and Saudi Arabia reduce defense spendings, maybe after today’s meeting there’ll be some movements toward agreement about its more moderate extraction, so that its price will stabilize and go to optimal level. Government of South Africa wishes to accept agreement with Russia on nuclear energy development in country, which will be good for its citizens and Russia citizens too. Chinese military forces established first marine forces base in Africa, which signals about increase of interest of one of the economically strongest countries in region; maybe, this will contribute to stabilization of situation on continent and will decrease destabilizing influences of USA on region’s countries. This all for today, next review will be in around 1 week.
One of the plesiosaurs of Jurassic period of Mesozoic era is a simolestes – 6 m marine predator with 1 m skull and pack of teeth on ends of jaws. Earlier it was thought, that animal hunted on large prey and teared off large chunks of meat by rotating, like today’s crocodiles do; but modern studies show, that simolestes’ jaws were not so strong and they ate mostly mollusks, fishes and other small reptiles. They had 2 pairs of paws-fins, with which they made simultaneous or alternating swings, like other plesiosaurs did; modern simolestes’ bones studies show, that they belonged to true plesiosaurs and not to the earlier primitive forms.
Simolestes had short neck, broad jaws and short tail, which make them typical pliosaurs, belonging to plesiosaurs. During life their teeth were positioned much more vertically, then fossilized skull of almost complete skeleton of reptile has; their rotation to outer sides is caused by crushing and deformations of skull during millions of years in Earth‘s crust. Fossils of animals were found in England and France, and also India. For the first time they were described in 1877 year by Richard Lydekker.
Among long-necked plesiosaurus there were animals with diamond-shaped tail fin, similar to one, which flying pterosaursrhamphorhynchus had, for example, seeleyosaurus. They lived on Earth in the beginning of Jurassic period of Mesozoic era; animals had large paws-fins, with which were able to perform alternating or simultaneous swings, achieving high acceleration and maneuverability. Seeleyosaurus ate fish, birds and other small marine reptiles, wherein they themselves were vulnerable to their short-necked relatives pliosaurus with larger jaws, teeth and mass; they had to show agility, intelligence and maneuverability to not become their breakfast. Currently there is no precise data, but maybe many plesiosaurus had the same diamond-shaped tail fin, there’ll be ability to say this for sure, when more fossils with tail skin impressions will be found. At these days seeleyosaurus are known only from 1 almost complete skeleton, which was found in Germany, it contains impressions of this steering adaptation of the animals.
In Triassic period of Mesozoic era lakes, seas and oceans were already inhabited by large reptiles, for example, ceresiosaurus were among them – ancestors of plesiosaurus, which appeared in a later Jurassic period. They reached in length 3 m and already had much of the features of a plesiosaurus : long neck, small head and limbs, almost transformed into the fins. They were fast swimmers and propelled in the water like modern penguins do, chasing small and fast prey. Species name means “Lizard from Ceresio” – this is a name of lake on the south of Switzerland, near which fossils of these reptiles were found for the first time.
Ceresiosaurus lived on Earth in the middle Triassic period 230 – 220 millions of years ago and inhabited small coastal lagoons, living alongside with other marine and landreptiles. Form of their limbs tells, that they were able to move on the ground, but not as effective, as other nothosaurus ( animals species, to which ceresiosaurus belong ) did, and already moved to completely marine lifestyle. For the first time fossils of this animals species were found and described in 1931 year by Bernhard Peyer, later people found other fossils of ceresiosaurus in this area.
In Jurassic seas of Mesozoic era different animals lived : among them there were liopleurodons – reptiles belonging to plesiosaurs, which had teeth like of modern orcas. Their scientific name is translated from Ancient Greek as “having smooth sided teeth“, they grew up to 7 m in length, had mass around 1 – 1.7 tons and were one of the largest marine predators of their times. Modern studies show, that their mouth closing strength was not so big, as modern crocodiles have or replaced then in Cretaceous periodmosasaurs had, but they compensated this with gigantic size and sharp teeth; they moved in water by flapping alternately ( for maneuverability ) or together ( for acceleration ) with both pairs of their flippers-like limbs and flew, like birds, in depths of Mesozoic waters. Such kind of propulsion is not the most energy-efficient, but provides high acceleration and maneuverability, which is needed for ambush predator.
Liopleurodons lived approximately 160 – 150 millions of years ago; their skull length reached 1/5th of their overall length and was 1.2 m maximum in absolute value; they had short neck, which is characteristic for pliosaurus family ( which belongs to plesiosaurus ), this differentiated them from long-necked members of this species and allowed them to hunt on larger preys. Up to current time not much fossils of liopleurodons were found : 1 almost complete skeleton and small amount of fragments, including teeth. Mainly they were found in Europe : in England and France, there are also findings in Russia. For the first time animals of this species were studied and described in 1873 year by Henri Émile Sauvage; later this marine reptiles species was examined again by other paleontologists, performed its reclassification.